Publisher: Afro-Middle East Centre (AMEC)

Published: January 2021

Paperback: 272 pages

Language: English

ISBN: 978-0-9947048-2-5

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Pre-orders will be shipped out in mid-February 2021.

Outsourcing Repression

Outsourcing Repression is a collection of analyses and essays on the roots, manifestations and consequences of paradigm of security coordination between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA).  The book discusses four key themes:  the evolution and reform of Palestinian security forces and security coordination since the inception of the Oslo Accords;  the militarisation of Palestinian aid and the foundation of a police state;  the outsourcing of repression and sponsorship of authoritarianism; and the criminalisation of Palestinian resistance as a consequences of donor-driven security sector reform of the Palestinian Authority security establishment.

Outsourcing Repression is a must-read for anyone who wants to understand the security framework of the Oslo Accords, as well as the mechanism of control that Palestinians are subjected to, and the additional layers of repression and authoritarianism that Palestinians in the Occupied Territory have faced since 1993.  This volume will be of  interest to a wide -range of readers, including academics, policymakers and activists who are concerned about rights, justice, freedom, and dignity in Occupied Palestine  

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Winner of the 2014 Palestine Book Award

Efforts to achieve a “two-state solution” have finally collapsed; the struggle for justice in Palestine is at a crossroads. As Israel and its advocates lurch toward greater extremism, many ask where the struggle is headed. This book offers a clear analysis of this crossroads moment and looks forward with urgency down the path to a more hopeful future.In this essential work, journalist Ali Abunimah takes a  comprehensive look at the shifting tides of the politics  of Palestine and the Israelis in a neoliberal world and  makes a compelling and surprising case for why the  Palestine solidarity movement just might win.Battle for Justice in Palestine

Ali Abunimah is the author of One Country: A Bold Proposal to End the Israeli Palestinian Impasse, and co-founder and director of the widely acclaimed publication The Electronic Intifada. Based in the United States, he has written hundreds of articles and been an active part of the movement for justice in Palestine for 20 years. He is the recipient of a 2013 Lannan Cultural Freedom Fellowship.

‘Every community that stands fast, loving its people and its land, its customs and its ways, will be seen, eventually, as worthy of saving. This is because it is our own humanity we are learning from, our own value. There will also arise a special voice to champion us, one that is brave, trustworthy and true. In The Battle for Justice in Palestine it is the voice of Ali Abunimah, fierce, wise - a warrior for justice and peace - someone whose large heart, one senses, beyond his calm, is constantly on fire. A pragmatist but also a poet. This is the book to read to understand the present bizarre and ongoing complexity of the Palestine/Israel tragedy. And though it is filled with the grim reality of this long and deadly, ugly and dehumanizing, conflict, it also offers hope: that as more people awaken to the shocking reality of what has for decades been going on, we can bring understanding and restitution to the Palestinian people. Their struggle to exist in dignity and peace in their own homeland - and this may be the biggest surprise of Abunimah's book - is mirrored in the struggles for survival and autonomy of more than a few of us.’
—Alice Walker

‘This is the best book on Palestine in the last decade. No existing book presents the staggering details and sophistication of analysis that Abunimah’s book offers. Abunimah’s scope includes an analysis of the politics, economics, environmental policies, identity politics, international relations, academic scholarship and activism, global solidarity, and official and unofficial lobbies that have come to bear on Palestine and the Palestinians. The Battle for Justice in Palestine is the most comprehensive treatment of Palestinian suffering under Israeli control and offers the only possible way to end it. It is a must read for anyone seeking to understand the current situation of the Palestinians and Israel.’
—Joseph Massad, Columbia University

‘With incisive style and scrupulous attention to documentation and detail, Ali Abunimah's new book offers a complex portrait, from every angle, of the Palestinian struggle for justice today.’
—Rebecca Vilkomerson, Executive Director, Jewish Voice for Peace

'A crucially needed dose of educated hope. This is what hits me from this fascinating amalgam of incisive journalism, analytic prose and intellectually compelling vision that emanates from many years of brilliant activism. Sailing effortlessly from the domestic to the global, from Johannesburg to Belfast and from Chicago to Tel Aviv, Ali Abunimah paints a lucid, accessible picture out of a complex web of racism, racialized oppression, and creative resistance. Abunimah does not give us hope; he helps us dig for it within us by meticulously laying out before us the facts, the trends, the challenges and the inspiring resistance to them.’
—Omar Barghouti, co-founder of the BDS movement, author of Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions: The Global Struggle for Palestinian Rights

‘In The Battle for Justice in Palestine, Ali Abunimah—the most astute commentator writing on Palestine today—bursts the leaky myths of Israeli exceptionalism while carefully examining where the battle for Palestine is currently being waged. Forget the endless “peace process,” which has ushered in little more than massive economic exploitation, tragic environmental degradation, and servile and destructive politics. Focus instead, Abunimah tells us, on the many civil society and campus initiatives around the world that are bravely ushering in a new era of global grass-roots organizing for justice. Rich in information and deep in analysis, The Battle for Justice in Palestine will inspire readers that Palestinian self-determination is not only possible but absolutely necessary.’
—Moustafa Bayoumi, author, How Does It Feel to Be a Problem?: Being Young and Arab in America

‘Those familiar with Ali Abunimah’s writing know to expect sophistication without theoretical jargon... His latest book, The Battle for Justice in Palestine, both reflects and synthesizes the dramatic shifts in the discourse around the Israel-Palestine conflict in the United States as well as in Israel and the Arab world, in particular the emergence of one-state demands and the coalescence of an anti-Zionist position on the left.’
—Steven Salaita, The New Inquiry

‘Though he never loses sight of the grim reality on the ground, Abunimah's writing is infused with a sense of optimism about the possibility of realising decolonization and a just future for all who live in historic Palestine.’
—Ben White, Middle East Monitor

‘The Battle for Justice in Palestine is a crucial book appearing in a crucial time... Abunimah strips away Israel’s justifications for its occupation and makes a vital contribution to real justice in Palestine.’
—Ron Jacobs, CounterPunch

‘The inspiring vision Abunimah lays out reflects the hope stirred by a growing and increasingly successful movement on the ground, which is helping to turn the tide in the struggle for Palestine. For those active in this movement, this book is a must-read, but its lessons are for anyone interested in the fight for a better world.’
—Wael Elasady, Socialist Worker


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While the outcomes of the tumultuous uprisings that continue to transfix the Arab world remain uncertain, the root causes of rebellion persist. Drawing upon extensive empirical research, Lineages of Revolt tracks the major shifts in the region’s political economy over recent decades. In this illuminating and original work, Adam Hanieh explores the contours of neoliberal policies, dynamics of class and state formation, imperialism and the nature of regional accumulation, the significance of Palestine and the Gulf Arab states, and the ramifications of the global economic crisis. By mapping the complex and contested nature of capitalism in the Middle East, the book demonstrates that a full understanding of the uprisings needs to go beyond a simple focus on ‘dictators and democracy.’Lineages of Revolt

‘This important, original work should be read by anyone with an interest in the political economy of the Middle East.’

– Middle East Research and Information Project (MERIP)

‘Hanieh’s groundbreaking book argues that we should not view the Gulf Arab states as anomalies in the worldwide economy.’

Arab Studies Journal

‘Insightful, timely, and welcome...the analytical framework and substantial data he puts forward in the book will help readers map out the current and future processes of regional integration, class formations, and contradictions, and to situate these processes within the wider global political economy.’

International Socialist Review

Adam Hanieh is a Senior Lecturer in Development Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London (UK). He is author of Capitalism and Class in the Gulf Arab States.



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You won’t see segments about it on the nightly news or read about it on the front page of America’s newspapers, but the Pentagon is fighting a new shadow war in Africa, helping to destabilize whole countries and preparing the ground for future blowback. Behind closed doors, US officers now claim that “Africa is the battlefield of tomorrow, today.” In Tomorrow’s Battlefield, award-winning journalist and bestselling author Nick Turse exposes the shocking true story of the US military’s spreading secret wars in Africa.Tomorrow's Battlefield, by Nick Turse

“A dogged and intrepid journalist who won’t take ‘no comment’ for an answer, Nick Turse has done a fantastic job of exposing the US military’s expansion into Africa and the proliferation of its secret missions on the continent.”

—Craig Whitlock, Pentagon correspondent, Washington Post

“[Turse’s] investigations of US military missions in Africa in Tomorrow’s Battlefield reveal a secret war with grave implications for Africans and Americans, alike.”

—Glenn Greenwald

“Nick Turse’s investigative reporting has revealed a remarkable picture of evolving US military operations in Africa that have been concealed from view but have ominous portent, as he demonstrates vividly and in depth.”

—Noam Chomsky

Nick Turse, an award-winning journalist and historian, is the author and editor of several books, including The Changing Face of Empire: Special Ops, Drones, Spies, Proxy Fighters, Secret Bases, and Cyberwarfare (Haymarket Books), the managing editor of TomDispatch, and a fellow at the Nation Institute.

Chapters include:

  • America’s Shadow Wars in Africa: Obama’s Scramble for Africa
  • Blowback Central: The Terror Diaspora
  • AFRICOM’s Gigantic “Small Footprint”: The Pivot to Africa
  • American Proxy Wars in Africa: A New Model for Expeditionary Warfare
  • Nonstop Ops: US Military Averaging More Than a Mission a Day in Africa
  • AFRICOM Becomes a “War-Fighting Combatant Command”: Going to War on the Sly
  • The Pentagon, Libya, and Tomorrow’s Blowback Today: How Not to End Violence in a War-Torn Land
  • How “Benghazi” Birthed the New Normal in Africa: A Secret African Mission and an African Mission That’s No Secret
  • An East–West Showdown: China, America, and a New Cold War in Africa
  • Christmas in July and the Collapse of America’s Great African Experiment: As a Man-Made Famine Looms, Christmas Comes Early to South Sudan
  • American Monuments to Failure in Africa? How Not to Win Hearts and Minds
  • American “Success” and the Rise of West African Piracy: Pirates of the Gulf of Guinea
  • The Outpost That Doesn’t Exist in the Country You Can’t Locate: A Base Camp, an Authoritarian Regime, and the Future of US Blowback in Africa
  • Finding Barack Obama in South Sudan


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AMEC insights 2014 brings together the series of AMEC briefs and AMEC insights published by the Afro-Middle East Centre in 2014. These two publications, issued regularly by AMEC, seek to document events in the region, analyse what they mean for the people of the region, the African continent and the globe, and chart future scenarios for how events might unfold. This book thus presents the institute’s analyses of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region for that period, as events unfolded. With 2014 being another tumultuous year in the region, the book covers much ground. It presents the reader with analysis that was done in the midst of dramatic events taking place, and with scenarios for the future in the various contexts. It makes an excellent record of the year, and includes chapters on Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, the Islamic State group, Israel, Jordan, Libya, Nigeria, the Palestinian people, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.AMEC Insights 2014 Cover S

The Afro-Middle East Centre publishes, on average, one analysis piece a week, addressing the geopolitical and economic situation of the MENA region. Most of the chapters have been authored or co-authored by researchers at AMEC. Other chapters were authored by researchers outside of AMEC. Of these, some were commissioned by AMEC while others were published in terms of publication-sharing agreements with or permission from other institutions.

AMEC intends annually to publish this collection, as a public record of its analyses for the year, and as a measure too of the value of these analyses.

The chapters in Volume 1 cover the entire MENA region, and include:

  • An analysis of Egypt’s draft constitution: Possible impacts on child labour and unionisation
  • Erdogan and Gülen: A political battle through the courts
  • When voting means very little: Egypt’s constitutional referendum
  • Tunisia’s new constitution and the future of its democratic transition
  • Round Two in Geneva, but no breakthrough in sight for Syria
  • Egypt – cabinet resignations and increasing economic deterioration
  • Parliament moves fast, but still no break in Libyan political gridlock
  • Iranian-American rapprochement: Positions of the main Iranian roleplayers
  • Turkey’s Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi and the Kurdish question: From conflict to negotiation
  • The pitfalls of weaponry: Undermining legitimacy in Libya
  • Saudi-Qatari tensions and implications for the Persian Gulf
  • Murder, spies and alibis: Behind the rhetoric between Mohammed Dahlan and Mahmoud Abbas
  • Did Erdogan win a popularity contest in Turkey's municipal elections?
  • Egypt’s presidential elections: When the result has already been decided
  • Algerian election may be more about internal regime disputes
  • Is Iraq facing a third term under Maliki?Palestinian reconciliation and the future of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations
  • Erdogan’s march to the presidency: Possible scenarios
  • Negotiations and military action to free Nigerian schoolgirls
  • Israeli foreign minister Lieberman readies for an African safari
  • No surprises in Syria’s presidential election in the midst of civil war
  • Rapid gains by ISIS in Iraq are the result of a political rather than a military crisis
  • Iraq: ISIS has a credibility crisis
  • The real targets of Israel’s Operation Brother’s Keeper is the Hamas-Palestinian Authority unity government
  • Jordan’s Muslim Brotherhood: Struggling to remain relevant
  • Co-ordination between Palestinian Authority and Israeli security forces keeps Palestinian outrage in check
  • Turkey’s presidential election can potentially reconfigure Turkish politics
  • Escalation of Israeli onslaught on Gaza, and no ceasefire in sight
  • From Maracanã to Gaza: ‘Shooting’ and ‘firing’
  • Prospects for the end of Israel’s ‘Operation Protective Edge’
  • Gaza’s challenges for journalism
  • Women in conflict
  • The Arab counterrevolution is in decline
  • Anti-West is far too simplistic a view
  • Regional dimensions to the Libyan conflict
  • Houthi gains in Yemen: Regional and local dimensions
  • Analysing Tunisia’s first post-revolutionary legislative elections
  • The battle for Kobane: Turkey, USA and the future of the Kurds
  • The crisis in northern Sinai worsens
  • Ennahda’s post-election future
  • Tensions in Jerusalem demand political action, not moral outrage











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Written while the euphoria of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) uprisings was still palpable, this is a collection by an international mix of respected academics and active political roleplayers who reflect on the changing face of the MENA region since the end of 2010. The book examines the theoretical frameworks within which the uprisings and the movements for and towards democracy in the region might be situated; and chronicles and analyses the uprisings in the various countries where they occurred, their causes, the role of external actors, and the impact of the uprisings on the African continent.AMEC book: MENA uprisings and transformations and their impact on Africa

Carefully focusing on different countries, while not ignoring the regional tapestry which served as a background for the uprisings, this book presents a fascinating and thoughtful look at one of the most exciting – albeit brief – periods in the MENA region in recent times.


Ahmed Abd Rabou, Ashur Shamis, Daryl Glaser, Ebrahim Ebrahim, Ebrahim Shabbir Deen, Francis Nguendi Ikome, Garth le Pere, Hadi Enayat, Houchang E Chehabi, Lutfi Zaitoun, Na’eem Jeenah, Phyllis Bennis, Yahia H Zoubir



Transitions, revolutions, and democratisations: Conceptual clarifications - Houchang E Chehabi

The long road from revolution to democracy in the Middle East and North Africa: Challenges and threats facing states in transition - Garth le Pere


Springs and winters: Interventions and interferences in the Arab uprisings - Phyllis Bennis

‘Islamists’ above ground and poised to lead: A Libyan Islamist perspective - Ashur Shamis

Islamist re-awakening in Egypt: From opposition movements to ruling parties - Ahmed Abd Rabou

Law and the judicialisation of politics in the Egyptian revolution - Hadi Enayat

Egyptian liberals in the struggle for and against democracy - Daryl Glaser

The Tunisian intifada and the way forward - Lutfi Zaitoun

Consequences of Ennahda’s relative weakness in Tunisia: Problematising negotiated revolutions - Ebrahim Shabbir Deen

The Arab uprisings: Is Algeria exceptional? - Yahia H Zoubir


After Gaddafi and Mubarak: A new role for North Africa in the African Union - Francis Nguendi Ikome

Lessons from South Africa’s reconciliation process for post-uprising states - Na’eem Jeenah and Ebrahim Shabbir Deen

Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat within Islamism, by Azzam Tamimi

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Azzam Tamimi introduces the thought of Sheikh Rachid Ghannouchi, the renowned Islamist political activist who heads Tunisia's most important Islamist political party, Ennahda, previously banned by the authoritarian regime of Zine Abidine Ben Ali, and now the main party in the tripartite government in Tunisia. Ghannouchi, who lived in exile for many years as he was hunted by the Tunisian regime, is also the leader of a school in modern Islamic political thought that advocates democracy and pluralism.

compatibility of democracy with Islam, he believes that because of their secular foundations, contemporary forms of liberal democracy may not suit Muslim societies. Ghannouchi insists, however, that Islam is compatible with Western thought in matters concerning the system of government, human rights, and civil liberties.

Tamimi does an excellent job in unpacking Ghannouchi the person, the political activist, and the scholar. His treatment of Ghannouchi s ideology is unique and highlights why Ghannouchi is probably the deepest and most important Islamist intellectual of our time.

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For anyone interested in Palestine, and in national liberation struggles more broadly, AMEC’s powerful new book, The PLO: Critical appraisals from the inside, provides an essential anthology of key perspectives on the Palestinian struggle up to 2006. The book offers readers a rare opportunity to eavesdrop on the conversations of those intimately involved in searching for solutions to one of the world’s most intractable conflicts.853197cadb7f0bf1a498fa7fcc83ce07 S

At the turn of the millennium, after decades of struggle, the Palestinian Liberation Organization was in a shambles. In 2005, a reconciliation conference held in Cairo seemed to offer some hope for the revitalisation of the organisation, but Hamas’s victory in the 2006 Palestinian Authority elections caught the PLO off-guard. Conflicts and tensions exploded as the PLO tried to claw back the power it had lost. Amid calls for the organisation to renew itself or make way for a new group, the al-aytouna Centre for Studies and Consultations convened a conference in Beirut to discuss the PLO. Representatives of the PLO’s main factions joined leaders from Hamas, Islamic Jihad, as well as activists and academics, to discuss what they could learn from the past, and try to forge some consensus on how to take the Palestinian struggle forward.

Critical Appraisals from the Inside documents the papers and debates presented at the conference. Originally published in Arabic, the book provides a fascinating window on Palestinians’ unique understandings of the history of their struggle, and of the PLO. It offers an insider’s view on issues such as national unity, the intricate nature of relations between Palestinians in the diaspora and those in the Occupied Territory, the fragmented nature of the Arab condition, as well as the impact of the meddling by Arab nations and western powers in Palestinian affairs.

The book was originally published in Arabic by the Beirut-based Al-Zaytouna Centre for Studies and Consultations, and was translated into English and republished by the Afro-Middle East Centre. It was edited by AMEC’s executive director, Na’eem Jeenah, and Al-Zaytouna Centre director, Mohsen Moh’d Saleh.

Contributing authors include:

Shafiq al-Hout

Usama Hamdan

Mohsen Moh’d Saleh

Nafez Abu Hasna

Muhammad Tayseer al-Khatib

Ahmad Said Nufal

Munir Shafiq

Saqr Abu Fakhr

Salman Abu-Sitta

Helmy Mousa

Mohammed Sayed Said

Abdullah al-Ashaal

Fathi Abu al-Ardat

Marwan Abdul Al

Anwar Abu Taha

Suhail al-Natour

The table of contents includes:


            Mohsen Moh’d Saleh

The PLO’s journey from 1964 to 2006: An overview

            Shafiq al-Hout

The rise of Palestinian national consciousness in the PLO

            Nafez Abu Hasna

Towards an inclusive national charter

            Muhammad Tayseer al-Khatib

The Palestinian National Council: Restructuring for

fairer representation

            Mohsen Moh’d Saleh

Towards a healthy relationship between the PLO and

the Palestinian Authority

            Ahmad Said Nufal

The PLO and endeavours to forge Palestinian national unity

            Munir Shafiq

The PLO’s planning and research centres: Academic freedom

and academic research

            Saqr Abu Fakhr

The PLO’s handling of the refugee issue

            Salman Abu-Sitta

The PLO’s management of negotiations with Israel

            Helmy Mousa

The PLO’s perspective on Arab–Palestinian relations

            Mohammed Sayed Said

Towards a new kind of international diplomacy for the PLO

            Abdullah al-Ashaal

Rebuilding the PLO: Fatah’s perspective

            Fathi Abu al-Ardat

Rebuilding and reactivating the PLO: The Hamas perspective

            Usamah Hamdan

The PLO – present reality and future prospects:

The perspective of the Popular Front for the Liberation

of Palestine

            Marwan Abdul Al

Rebuilding the PLO: The perspective of the Palestinian

Islamic Jihad movement

            Anwar Abu Taha

Rebuilding the PLO: The perspective of the Democratic

Front for the Liberation of Palestine

            Suhail al-Natour

The book will soon be in bookshops. In the meanwhile, you may obtain your copy from the Afro-Middle East Centre. Email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

By Jadaliyya

Na’eem Jeenah, editor, Pretending Democracy: Israel, An Ethnocratic State. Johannesburg: Afro-Middle East Centre, 2012.

Jadaliyya (J): What made you publish this book?

Na’eem Jeenah (NJ): The book emerged out of a conference organized by the Afro-Middle East Centre and which was held in Pretoria, South Africa. The conference brought together important scholars who have being thinking and writing about the issue of the nature of the Israeli state, those who are affected by this, and also ways in which to move beyond the ethnocratic state that Israel is towards a future that can address the injustices that have been heaped on Palestinians by Israel’s Zionist policies and practices. In conceptualizing the conference we were determined that the critical ideas emerging from it should be collected into a book. The book is really an attempt by the Afro-Middle East Centre to provide some fresh thinking on what the Israeli state is, what it pretends to be, and how that can be changed.

J: Who are the contributors to the book?

NJ: Ali Abunimah, Neville Alexander, Max du Plessis, Steven Friedman, Daryl Glaser, Ran Greenstein, Heidi Grunebaum, Adam Habib, Na'eem Jeenah, Ronnie Kasrils, Smadar Lavie, Fouad Moughrabi, Nadim N. Rouhana, Shlomo Sand, Avi Shlaim, Azzam Tamimi, Salim Vally, Oren Yiftachel, and Andre Zaaiman.

J: What particular themes and issues does it address?

NJ: The book is divided into four parts: “Israel and its Founding Myths”; “The Ethnic State and its Victims”; “Comparative Ethnic Nationalisms”; and “Beyond Ethnic Nationalism.”

The first part includes chapters by Shlomo Sand and Avi Shlaim, which lay the basis for the following chapters, about Jewish nationhood, nationalism, and Israeli statehood. Sand critically examines the notion that Jews belong to a single nation with a common ancestry. He suggests that the “Jewish nation” is, in fact, a recent invention created for political purposes. Shlaim examines some of the issues that characterized debates among early Zionists and concludes that on matters of principle, strategy, and tactics there were few significant differences between the “right” and the “left.”

Part Two covers issues related to the victims of the Israeli state, their plight, and ways of progressing beyond the situation of victimhood. Ran Greenstein explores the meaning and implications of the notion that Israel is an ethnic state; Oren Yiftachel builds on his contention in earlier writings that Israel is an ethnocracy; Max du Plessis, who was a member of a research team that investigated Israel’s actions from the perspective of international law, writes about the findings of that study and its conclusion that Israel’s actions in the Occupied Palestinian Territory constitute occupation, colonialism, and apartheid. He argues that a case should be made against Israel in the International Court of Justice. Nadim Rouhana’s chapter about Palestinian citizens of Israel argues for reconciliation—including redress for past injustices—between Jewish and Palestinian citizens. The final chapter in this part, by Smadar Lavie, looks at Jewish victims of Zionism—particularly Mizrahi Jews.

Part Three compares Jewish nationalism in Israel with other forms of nationalism. Neville Alexander discusses the national question, particularly in South Africa, providing food for thought for those trying to succeed where South Africa seems to be failing. Andre Zaaiman writes about his personal experience of growing up with Afrikaner nationalism and compares that to Jewish nationalism. Daryl Glaser discusses Israel, South Africa, and Ulster as “settler democracies.” Adam Habib reflects on the role of the international community in South Africa and Israel, arguing that ethnic states are unsustainable. Heidi Grunebaum examines South African Zionism through the Jewish National Fund. In his chapter, Ronnie Kasrils applies the lens of “colonialism of a special type”—previously employed by the South African Communist Party—to analyze the Palestinian-Israeli situation.

The last part of the book looks at the theme “Beyond Ethnic Nationalism,” and points to possible future solutions to the Palestinian-Israeli question. Azzam Tamimi presents a Palestinian Islamist perspective on future possibilities, focusing particularly on Hamas. Steven Friedman argues that the notion of Jews living as a minority in a future single state with a Palestinian majority is not a shocking prospect. Jewish survival, he asserts, does not hinge on a “Jewish state.” Fouad Moughrabi suggests that there is “radical hope” in the cultural activities of young Palestinians. Ali Abunimah suggests that the South African experience of ending apartheid might be useful in pointing towards a resolution to the Palestinian-Israeli question and argues for a peaceful transition to a single democratic state in Palestine-Israel. Finally, Salim Vally and I take the one-state argument of Ali and Steven a little further, arguing that a major part of making such a solution work successfully for all its people will be a careful and thorough resolution of the national question. We suggest that the project of building a new nation may be more important for Palestinians and Israelis than resolving the question of statehood.

The book includes a foreword by South African deputy minister of international relations, Ebrahim Ebrahim.

J: Who do you hope will read this book, and what sort of impact would you like it to have?

NJ: While the book is aimed at academics and those involved in the question of Palestine and Israel, we were determined to produce a book that will be accessible to anyone that wants to unpack what the Israel state is all about.

We hope that it will help enhance scholarly debate around the nature of the Israeli state and the question of the place of ethnocracies in our world today. We also believe that the book raises debates that can contribute towards the process of finding solutions for the future of Palestinians and Israeli Jews.

J: What other projects are you working on now?

NJ: Two projects will come together early in 2013. The first is the re-publication of a book by Azzam Tamimi on the life of the leader of the Tunisian Ennahda movement / party, Rachid al-Ghannouchi. The book is called A Democrat Within Islamism. It’s a very timely re-publication and will include a new afterword by the author and a foreword by me.

The second project is a book on the PLO, with contributions from a range of Palestinian activists and scholars. In a sense, this book is an “internal” conversation between Palestinians, which we are allowing readers to be voyeurs to. The book was originally published in Arabic and we have translated it for an English-speaking audience.

J: What kinds of insights does your book present for Israel regarding alternative state models to an ethnocracy?

NJ: Well, to be honest, the book has not been too creative in providing a range of alternative models. There is a strong argument that the best way forward is a single democratic state whose citizens will include all Palestinians and Jewish citizens of Israel. There are also some suggestions for a binational state. In either case, the overriding idea is a democratic state where all citizens have equal rights and where there will be determined attempts at redressing the injustices of the past.

Excerpts from Pretending Democracy: Israel, An Ethnocratic State:

[There is] a duality in the Israeli state between a democratic facade and a deeper undemocratic regime logic, which facilitates the dispossession, control, and peripheralization of groups that do not belong to the dominant ethno-class. Thus the very nature of the settling ethnocracy, which combines expansion, settlement, segregation, and ethno-class stratification, militates against the effectiveness of challenges emanating from peripheral groups. The selective openness of the regime, which allows for public protest, free speech, and periodic elections, is largely an illusion: the ethnocratic regime has arranged itself politically, culturally, and geographically so as to absorb, contain, or ignore the challenge emerging from its peripheries, thereby trapping them in their respective predicaments. – Oren Yiftachel

Most Jewish Israelis and the Zionist movement across the world like to insist that Israel is what they call a “Jewish and democratic state.” Without realizing the irony or contradiction in this, they insist that both epithets—Jewish and democratic—equally apply to the Israeli state. Further, while other states define themselves for themselves and their citizens, Israelis go beyond that and insist that others recognize their state’s “Jewish and democratic” character too. The refusal of the Palestinian Authority (PA), for example, to agree to recognize Israel as a “Jewish state” has been a sticking point in negotiations between the PA and the Israelis.

Israel is, in fact, as much a Jewish state and a democratic state as apartheid South Africa was a white state and a democratic state. Israel is not exclusively Jewish, and Israel is certainly not democratic. Both are pretenses upheld for political purposes—for the sake of obtaining legitimacy for the Israeli state and as an attempt to mask a form of ethnic cleansing. The truth is that Israel is an ethnocratic state; perhaps a more accurate description would be “a Jewish and ethnocratic state.”

The notion of Israel as a “Jewish and democratic state” requires some interrogation. The defenders of this notion go to great lengths to attempt to show that the terms “Jewish” and “democratic” are not contradictory and that a state can be ethnically based and still be democratic. It is a difficult argument to sustain.

Even though the notion of Israel being “Jewish and democratic” has been used by certain Israelis since the late 1960s (mostly by the Israeli “left”), the official use of this phrase is just two decades old. Israel’s 1948 Declaration of Independence mentions its Jewish character but makes no mention of democracy. It does, however, claim that the state will “ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race, or sex” and that it would “guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education, and culture”—stipulations which, in themselves, convey a sense of democratic values—except that they have not been implemented in reality


In 1992, Israel discussed and then adopted two new Basic Laws after which the term “Jewish and democratic” entered official discourse. Known as Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty and Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation, these basic laws—especially the first—ostensibly provide for the human rights of Israeli citizens. Thus, for example, retired president of the Israeli supreme court and professor of law, Aharon Barak, argues that the two laws “serve as the Israeli equivalent of the Bill of Rights.” The first clause of the Human Dignity and Liberty Law states: “The purpose of this Basic Law is to protect human dignity and liberty, in order to establish in a Basic Law the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state” (emphasis added). The oxymoronic phrase was introduced in order to satisfy both the Jewish religious parties (which insisted on “Jewish” being explicit) and the Jewish secular parties (which insisted that “democratic” be explicit)...


If conventional wisdom is to be believed, the idea that Jews might survive culturally and physically as a minority in a Palestinian state is a dangerous fantasy. But if Jewish tradition and experience is to be believed, there is nothing odd—let alone fantastic—about the possibility.

A core Zionist assumption is that Jewish survival hinges on Jews maintaining a specifically Jewish state; without this, it is claimed, Jews face the constant threat of the genocidal violence unleashed by Nazism—or, at least, of constant persecution.


While this claim that a state is the only plausible antidote to the threat of extinction is by far the dominant Zionist concern, an ethno-nationalist state is also often held to be essential for the maintenance and expression of an authentic Jewish identity: political Zionism has, therefore, been described by some of its academic adherents as the “national liberation movement of the Jewish people.” These assumptions are a core obstacle to a just and democratic resolution of the Palestinian conflict. Not only do they reject the notion of a single, democratic polity shared by Jews and Palestinians, they also make more limited attempts at accommodation impossible by constantly reinforcing a sense of threat within the Jewish Israeli mainstream and, as a consequence, a demand for “security” at virtually any cost to ward off the danger. This has enabled successive Israeli governments to pass off virtually any measure inimical to Palestinian interests as a “security” precaution, which may at least partly explain the continuing rightward shift in Jewish Israeli politics. Continued Palestinian resistance is portrayed as an existential threat (and its failure to disappear is seen to demand ever more extreme measures to eliminate it). While critics of a single democratic state often cite this Israeli assumption as an argument for a “two-state solution” on the grounds that Jewish Israelis will never relinquish the protection of an ethnic state, it increasingly presents itself as an abiding obstacle to any sort of solution.

As long as Jewish survival is equated with the maintenance of an ethnic state, no resolution that might win sustained Palestinian loyalty is possible. The rigidity of the Jewish Israeli equation of ethnic statehood with safety, often cited as an eternal obstacle to a single state, is in reality also a powerful argument against the viability of a “two-state solution.” As long as this equation persists, it seems highly implausible that a separate Palestinian state will appear to mainstream Israeli opinion as a viable guarantor of the security of the Israeli state. And if the view that ethnic statehood is integral to Jewish survival begins to erode, then so does much of the rationale for two separate states. The insistence that without a state of their own Jews are in constant peril is thus an obstacle to any settlement, even one which concedes the principle of Jewish ethnic statehood. This means that accepting the principle of Jewish ethnic statehood on pragmatic grounds, arguing that only this scenario offers any prospect of a settlement, is a strategy doomed to fail. Prospects for justice and peace rest, then, on positing a future in which Jewish statehood will no longer be seen as essential to Jewish survival and in which minority status in a democratic state will be seen as an appropriate means of achieving Jewish security.

An obvious objection to this approach is that it seems to deny Palestinian agency by making Jewish opinion a precondition for a just and peaceful end to the suppression of Palestinian rights. It is therefore important to stress that the analysis presented here assumes that changes in Jewish opinion are likely only if there is a fundamental challenge to the prevailing balance of power and that this requires an effective Palestinian campaign to deprive Zionism of its legitimacy. This is not the place to discuss the strategies which might achieve that, save to say that the emergence of the Boycott Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement holds out the prospect of a new Palestinian politics that can offer more effective resistance to ethnic domination and might well generate the secular democratic political organization required for that domination to end. But change in Palestine, as was the case in South Africa, is not purely a matter of the victims of ethnic domination mustering enough strength to defeat the system—it depends also on the emergence of divisions within the dominating group. In Palestine, as in South Africa, pressure is required to force the dominant group to reassess its options. But the military strength of the Israeli state means that this pressure is unlikely to overthrow the system of domination: its purpose is thus to force those who preside over it to reconsider their options and to negotiate a settlement with Palestinian leadership. It follows clearly from this that change will require a reassessment of Zionist options. The question of whether mainstream Jewish understandings of identity and security are capable of adjusting to the possibility of a shared state with a Palestinian majority is crucial to prospects for a settlement.


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What is AMEC?

What is AMEC?

Established in 1998, the Afro-Middle East Centre (AMEC) aims to foster, produce and disseminate the highest quality of research on the Middle East, to maintain public discussion and to help shape the public discourse on issues related to the Middle East. Amec's research includes relations between Africa and the Middle East.

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